Breviaries online dating
Codices are described in certain works by the Classical Latin poet, Martial.
Between the 4th century, when the codex gained wide acceptance, and the Carolingian Renaissance in the 8th century, many works that were not converted from scroll to codex were lost. It could be opened flat at any page for easier reading, pages could be written on both front and back (recto and verso), and the protection of durable covers made it more compact and easier to transport.The codices of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica had the same form as the European codex, but were instead made with long folded strips of either fig bark (amatl) or plant fibers, often with a layer of whitewash applied before writing.New World codices were written as late as the 16th century (see Maya codices and Aztec codices).Some codices are continuously folded like a concertina.The alternative to paged codex format for a long document is the continuous scroll.but describes the format that is now near-universal for printed books in the Western world.
The book is usually bound by stacking the pages and fixing one edge, and using a cover thicker than the sheets.
Those written before the Spanish conquests seem all to have been single long sheets folded concertina-style, sometimes written on both sides of the local amatl paper.
In East Asia, the scroll remained standard for far longer than in the Mediterranean world.
The codex began to replace the scroll almost as soon as it was invented.
In Egypt, by the fifth century, the codex outnumbered the scroll by ten to one based on surviving examples.
Examples of folded codices include the Maya codices.